With a burgeoning market for eDNA analyses, dozens of companies now offer genetic tests for detecting rare species. But some scientists are reluctant to switch to eDNA analysis

1. With a burgeoning market for eDNA analyses, dozens of companies now offer genetic tests for detecting rare species.  But some scientists are reluctant to switch to eDNA analysis because

a. Certification of government laboratories conducting eDNA studies is too cumbersome.

b. eDNA analysis tends to cost a lot more than conventional monitoring methods.

c. Current eDNA analysis methods are not as accurate as conventional monitoring methods.

d. eDNA tests have to be shown to be sensitive and specific and avoid false negatives.

2. For Barrett’s experiment on evolution of fur color in mice, match the following:

-Ground color

-Frequency of fur color

-Frequency of Agouti mutations

-The steel pens

A. Independent variable

B. Dependent variable

C. Standardized variable

D. Control treatment

3. Select all that apply: Ameera does not have properly formed male or female reproductive organs.  The reasons are the following.

a. The Y chromosome halted the formation of female reproductive organs such as a uterus.

b. Her body did not produce enough male hormones to form a male reproductive system.

c. Her goandoblastoma interfered with the proper formation of either reproductive system.

d. The X chromosome prevented the formation of proper male reproductive organs.

4. For the experiment carried out by the researchers at the University of Copenhagen on queen honeybees, match the following:

-Saline solution

-Fluid used in artificial insemination

-Response to light

-Sense of direction during mating flight

-Timing of mating flights

A. Independent variable

B. Control treatment

C. Standardized variable

D. Dependent variable

5. Select all that apply: Some scientists have objections against the research by Chinese researchers that involves creating transgenic monkeys with the human genes MCPH1.  They include:

a. Will a humanized monkey fit into its society, or will its new genes lead it to live in inhumane conditions?

b. Since monkeys and humans have similar genomes, changing this one gene results in drastic changes.

c. This research leads to neurodegenerative disorders in the transgenic monkeys being studied.

d. This research may lead to scientists using similar transgenic methods to enhance human brains.

6. In the latest effort to treat boys with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, the treated children are being monitored to make sure they don’t develop any signs of leukemia.  The reason is the following:

a. One of the consequences of X-linked SCID is leukemia, so despite the therapy used, the children have to be monitored continuously for signs of leukemia.

b. The virus used to deliver a functional copy of the IL2RG gene to the slowly dividing stem cells can sometimes cause them to divide irregularly.

c. Transplanting bone marrow from a matching sibling donor has to occur after chemotherapy, which can sometimes have unintended consequences.

d. The earliest gene therapy trials that happened 20 years ago partially improved the immune responses of the children, but caused leukemia in some patients.

7. Many studies that rely on eDNA collect samples from aquatic environments because:

a. An electric current is run through water to collect negatively charged DNA

b. DNA disperses and remains free floating in a body of water.

c. DNA clumps when in an aqueous solution and clumps are easy to collect.

d. They are less likely to show false positives or false negatives.

8. When the team at UCL in London studied Jo Cameron, they discovered the following:

a. They found aA new mutation that is a deletion of a segment of a previously unknown gene.

b. They found higher levels of expression of genes that suppress inflammation.

c. They found mutations in three separate genes that code for pain receptors.

d. They found lower levels of canabinnoids that regulate pain sensation and memory.

10. Select all that apply:  The structure for nucleic acid proposed by Watson and Crick differs from that proposed by Pauling and Corey in the following ways:

a. The former has the phosphates on the inside and the latter on the outside.

b. The former consists of parallel chains and the latter of antiparallel chains.

c. The former has the phosphates on the outside and the latter on the inside.

d. The former has the bases on the inside and the latter on the outside.

e. The latter consists of 3 intertwined chains and the former of 2 chains.