I will pay for the following article Lobotomy. The work is to be 5 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. In the 1950s, the emergence of chloropromazine alongside later psychotropic medications lessened considerably the frequency of surgical operations for the remedy of serious psychiatric disorders (Suchy, 2011). Furthermore, the random use of ablative brain methods, mostly lobotomy, as well as the absence of rigid rules for patient selection and inadequate postoperative information blemished the reputation of psychosurgery and triggered scientific denunciation and public debate (Johnson, 2011). Nevertheless, according to Suchy (2011), in spite of growing concern about psychosurgery, the advancement of surgical methods and the prevalence of stereotactic procedures for the precise positioning of abrasions in the brain allowed psychosurgery to endure until now. A Historical Analysis of Lobotomy The 1935 Second World Congress of Neurology was a milestone in psychosurgery’s history. Fulton and Jacobsen originally argued that the ‘resection of frontal association cortex’ may lead to significant alleviation of disordered behavior (Freeman, 1999, p. 51). This idea inspired the influential Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz to formulate one of the most controversial psychosurgical method of modern psychology—lobotomy. Specifically, he argued and showed clinically that the removal of the frontal lobe’s efferent and afferent fibers was effective in the medication of impaired mental patients (Sakas & Simpson, 2007, p. 366). Afterward, neurosurgeon James Watts and neurologist Walter Freeman revised the Moniz’s technique by pioneering ‘transorbital frontal lobotomy’ and ‘frontal leucotomy’. The range of psychiatric problems regarded as probably remedied by such early methods was eventually expanded to accommodate criminal behavior, homosexuality, depression, and schizophrenia (Sakas & Simpson, 2007, p. 366). However, severe postoperative outcomes like death, paralysis, intellectual disability, convulsions, and changes in personality were attributed to lobotomy. In spite of these serious side effects, the method was generally regarded as useful in most patients and Moniz received in 1949 the Nobel Prize in Medicine “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of prefrontal leucotomy in certain psychoses” (Suchy, 2011, p. 38). Frontal lobotomy is considered as one of the most disputed developments in modern psychology. The positive and encouraging testimony that arose alongside this method was supplanted eventually by social criticism and medical conflict (Freeman, 1999). In order to better understand the reason lobotomy became widely used in the field of neurosurgery and psychiatry, it is important to take into consideration the specific financial, medical, and social situations from the 1930s to the 1950s (Sakas & Simpson, 2007, p. 367): In 1937, there were approximately 480 American psychiatric institutions, where over 400,000 patients lived a disabled and desperate life. In the United States, given that over 50% of the hospital admissions were for mental illnesses, it was estimated that, by 1940, more than US$ billion would be necessary for the treatment of these patients. Additionally, 12% of the men were rejected by the armed forces because of severe mental disorders.
Acegraderesearch.com is a custom writing service that provides online on-demand writing work for assistance purposes. We are using Google Analytics to enhance your experience. No personal data is being tracked.
Phone: +1 (518) 418-5947
Using this service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies. You are allowed to use our model academic papers for revision purposes only