CJUS330 Test 4

Liberty University CJUS330 Test 4

·         Question 1

2 out of 2 points

In __________, it was found that a criminal defendant’s Sixth Amendment right to a fair trial is violated when prejudicial pretrial publicity unfairly taints the trial process.

·         Question 2

2 out of 2 points

The __________ Amendment guarantees that people should be secured against unreasonable searches and seizures.

·         Question 3

2 out of 2 points

What might happen to a jury if a judge is concerned about publicity in a trial?

·         Question 4

2 out of 2 points

What is another name for trial juries?

·         Question 5

2 out of 2 points

Criminal trials start with two presumptions: the presumption of innocence and the presumption of ________.

·         Question 6

2 out of 2 points

Challenges to jurors that require a justification are called challenges __________.

·         Question 7

2 out of 2 points

In __________, the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment incorporates the Sixth Amendment’s right to a jury trial.

·         Question 8

2 out of 2 points

CASE 13.1

Throughout most of our nation’s history, the three broad constitutional provisions dealing with trial by jury had little applicability in state courts. The U.S. Constitution applied only to trials in federal courts. These practices changed dramatically, however, when the Supreme Court decided Duncan v. Louisiana (1968), ruling that the jury provisions of the Sixth Amendment were incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to apply to state courts, as well. Subsequent decisions grappled with the problem of defining the precise meaning of the right to trial by jury. The most important issues concerned the scope of the right to a jury trial, the size of the jury, and unanimous versus nonunanimous verdicts.

Stefanie is caught shoplifting at her local pharmacy. Which of the following is most likely true?

Selected Answer:

d. She does not have a right to a jury trial.

·         Question 9

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The U.S. Supreme Court has approved six-member juries in criminal cases.

·         Question 10

1.5 out of 1.5 points

For law on the books, venire is when judges vary in their willingness to excuse potential jurors because of hardship.

·         Question 11

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A gag order prohibits anyone involved in a case—police, prosecutor, defense attorney, defendant—from talking to the press.

·         Question 12

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The primary purpose of the jury is to prevent oppression by the government.

·         Question 13

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that master jury lists must reflect a representative and impartial cross section of the community.

·         Question 14

1.5 out of 1.5 points

In Batson v. Kentucky, the Supreme Court restricted the ability of prosecutors who used preemptory challenges to keep African-Americans off the jury in any case involving an African-American defendant.

·         Question 15

2 out of 2 points

Executive branch influence on punishment is exercised through __________.

·         Question 16

2 out of 2 points

Advocates of the due process model believe the death penalty is __________.

·         Question 17

2 out of 2 points

“Only by ‘locking him up and throwing away the key’ can we assure that he won’t be able to rape another woman.” That statement best matches which of the following purposes of punishment?

·         Question 18

2 out of 2 points

Which Amendment to the Constitution prohibits cruel and unusual punishments?

·         Question 19

2 out of 2 points

In __________, it was decided that prisoners can sue correctional officials in federal court under 42 U.S.C. 1983.

·         Question 20

2 out of 2 points

What sentence specifically states the exact number of years to be served in prison?

·         Question 21

2 out of 2 points

In ancient societies, the primary purpose of punishment was __________.

·         Question 22

2 out of 2 points

A sum of money paid to the government by a person convicted of an offense as punishment is called __________.

·         Question 23

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A sentencing guidelines grid allows for upward and downward departures from the guidelines.

·         Question 24

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The race of the offender and victim is less important in sentencing than the race of the offender alone.

·         Question 25

1.5 out of 1.5 points

When a crime is perceived to be less serious, individual factors such as prior record are given relatively less weight than when the crime is more serious.

·         Question 26

1.5 out of 1.5 points

One reason for high rate of imprisonment is the length of sentences.

·         Question 27

1.5 out of 1.5 points

A law on the books approach to mandatory minimum sentences stresses nullification by discretion, whereas a law in action approach stresses certainty of punishment.

·         Question 28

2 out of 2 points

Severe defects in trial proceedings that require reversal of a conviction and remand for a new trial in order to avoid a miscarriage of justice are called __________.

·         Question 29

2 out of 2 points

The error-correction function of appellate review protects against arbitrary, capricious, or mistaken legal decisions by a trial court __________.

·         Question 30

2 out of 2 points

Oral arguments involve face-to-face contact between __________.

·         Question 31

0 out of 2 points

__________ percent of wrongful convictions come from exonerated murder and rape cases.

·         Question 32

2 out of 2 points

What is the last of the six customary phases in the appeals process?

·         Question 33

2 out of 2 points

Criminal defendants are guaranteed the right to have an appellate court directly examine their convictions for all types of alleged errors as long as they do what?

·         Question 34

2 out of 2 points

During trials, attorneys must make timely objections to judge’s rulings on points of law, or the objection will be deemed waived. What is the name of the rule?

·         Question 35

0 out of 2 points

For __________ years, the same nine justices sat on the Supreme Court; however, this changed in 2005.

·         Question 36

2 out of 2 points

CASE 15.1

Appeals courts approach appellate decision making in different ways, depending on the types of questions presented for review on appeal. Sometimes appellate courts are very deferential to what happened in lower courts, whereas other times they give no deference at all. How much deference or scrutiny an appellate court will afford to the decisions of a judge, jury, or administrative agency in an appeal is referred to as the standard of review.

The least deferential standard of appellate review in criminal cases is __________.

·         Question 37

1.5 out of 1.5 points

After a “not guilty” verdict is returned, the prosecutor cannot appeal the acquittal, even if the original trial was littered with serious mistakes.

·         Question 38

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The losing party in the lower court has an unlimited amount of time to file an appeal.

·         Question 39

1.5 out of 1.5 points

The current U.S. Supreme Court is highly polarized.

·         Question 40

0 out of 1.5 points

Differences in how state courts of last resort respond to death penalty appeals are random.

·         Question 41

1.5 out of 1.5 points

Scholars refer to Court eras according to the chief justice.

·         Question 42

Needs Grading

What presumptions apply at the start of trials? What is the burden of proof applicable to overcoming them?